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By Billie Jean Collins

This name issues man's touch with the animal global: sacrifice, sacred animals, vitamin, and domestication. Chapters on artwork, literature, faith and animal husbandry display an image of the complicated relationships among the peoples of the traditional close to East and (their) animals.

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Pigs (Sus scrofd) may also have come under domestication in the early Neolithic. Wild boar herds, or sounders, can still be found over much of their former range in the temperate and subtropical parts of Eurasia, but though they are normally active during daylight, they have become increasingly nocturnal to reduce competition in the face of rising human encroachment. Pigs are unusual among ungulates, as their omnivorous diet allows them a wide choice of habitats. They still prefer to remain near dense vegetation for the cover it provides, and they also seek out wallowing places in wet ground to find relief from insects or hot weather.

Other cultural factors may determine which bones will be discarded within the site and which will be consigned to oblivion on its outskirts or destroyed in other ways through subsequent uses. A further difficulty is that the remains of many species, especially birds and fishes, are absent or underrepresented because they are too light and fragile to survive diagenesis—that is, the physical and chemical changes imposed by long-term burial. Thus, the habitual collection and disposal behaviors of ancient humans compounded by diagenetic effects will inevitably winnow the faunal assemblage down in terms of represented species and skeletal part frequencies.

It eventually shrinks and hardens to a tough resiliency. Antlers function more for display than defense. The enormous output of metabolic energy required to grow them year after year contributes an important visual cue for ranking, which, along with body size, olfactory signals, and other indicators, determines social status and probably reduces the number of fights over access to females. Evenly matched males will become combative, but they tend to lock antlers and muscle each other, letting brute strength determine the victor without much stabbing and serious injury.

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