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By Arthur Pehr Robert Wadlund

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The evaluation of a Type A standard uncertainty may be based on any valid statistical method for treating data. Examples are calculating the standard deviation of the mean of a series of independent observations, using the method of least squares to fit a curve to data in order to estimate the parameters of the curve and their standard deviations. If the measurement situation is especially complicated, one should consider obtaining the guidance of a statistician. , Ref. [4]). When both Type A and Type B uncertainties are evaluated, they should be combined to represent the combined standard uncertainty.

19 Application Characteristics Design, weight, and overall dimensions are geared to specific areas of applications. Price may be a secondary issue when the sensor’s reliability and accuracy are of paramount importance. If a sensor is intended for life-support equipment, weapons or spacecraft, a high price tag may be well justified to assure high accuracy and reliability. On the other hand, for a very broad range of consumer applications, the price of a sensor often becomes a cornerstone of a design.

The boldface indicates a vector notation. A fact that the test charge is subjected to force without a physical contact between charges means that the volume of space occupied by the test charge may be characterized by a so-called electric field. The electric field in each point is defined through the force as E= f . 1) Here, E is vector in the same direction as f because q0 is scalar. 1) expresses an electric field as a force divided by a property of a test charge. The test charge must be very small not to disturb the electric field.

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