By Roger Teichmann (auth.)
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All he needs to show, after all, as far as the debate over realism goes, is that the sentence proferred by the realist is not one that can only be expressed using a proper noun ('Redness'). One can get involved in the question how the paraphrase does manage to say what it paraphrases - and thus in the question what 'thereby' means exactly - but that the paraphrase is one is something on which the nominalist can insist. It is, however, important to recognise that a certain kind of problems for the nominalist will really be problems for the realist too.
If, for instance, the main functor is a sentential connective, such as 'and', does it really make sense to speak of applying negation to it, let alone operators such as 'Nelly believes that'? Sometimes ordinary language will encourage speaking in this way, but often it will not. (Thus, the 'neither ... nor ... ' construction encourages the idea that' ... or ... ) In fact, to some degree talk of the applicability of operators in general to main functors is a formal convenience, relying on the fact that the cases where such talk clearly is appropriate are demonstrably on a par, logically, with those cases where it is less appropriate.
But if this strategy is to be extended to 'Humility is a virtue', and so on, we will need a host of 2-place predicables such as '- is virtuous in the same way as -', many of which might seem a trifle unbelievable. Unfortunately, I have not space to go into this question further. But, it may be objected, is the analysis of '-is coloured' which I have given really adequate? And, even if it is adequate, can a nominalist guarantee to provide analyses on demand? In fact, the analysis which I have given of '- is coloured' certainly needs tinkering with, for instance, to exclude '- is transparent', or '- is blurred', as substituends for the predicable-variables.