By Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin
The Advances in Virus study sequence covers a various diversity of in-depth reports offering a worthwhile review of the present box of virology. This eclectic quantity includes six reports overlaying themes in relation to plant viruses, evolution of viruses with hosts and mobilephone acceptance by means of viruses.
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Additional info for Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 63
Upon binding of their cognate hormones, these receptors translocate into the nucleus to function as transcriptional transactivators. Free receptors are unable to bind hormone, probably because the hydrophobic steroid binding pocket is inaccessible. Opening of this pocket is only achieved when the receptors are complexed with Hsp90 and additional cofactors. Early immunoprecipitation studies suggested that, through sequential interactions with Hsp70, Hsp40, and the Hsp-organizing protein Hop, mature hormone binding competent complexes are assembled that contain Hsp90, a small acidic protein called p23, and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) containing immunophilin such as cyclophilin 40 (protein kinase complexes appear to contain, instead, p50 whose yeast homologue is known as CDC37).
Given that the structural arrangement of LSECs and hepatocytes is largely lost in vitro, this may be one explanation for the contrasting efficiency of in vivo infection. Following internalization, DHBV is transported to the late endosome because Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of vacuolar proton ATPases that blocks traffic from early to late endosomes, also blocks DHBV infection (Grgacic, unpublished data). , 1996; Rigg and Schaller, 1992). , 2000), which usually indicates entry via fusion at the plasma membrane.
Again, sequence complementarity is essential for the specifity of these template switches, but it cannot explain how the proper copy of each of the repeat elements is selected during each step. , 2000). Similarly, proper juxtaposition of the critical elements on the (À)-DNA might explain the specificity of the template switches during (þ)-strand DNA synthesis. Though attractive, this model also appeared difficult to prove experimentally. However, in a series of elegant genetic experiments, again using DHBV as a model, strong evidence has been provided that long-range base-pairing interactions between regions far apart in primary sequence are main contributors to the specificity of the template switches.