By L. Kirkup, R. B. Frenkel
Size shapes medical theories, characterises advancements in production techniques and promotes effective trade. In live performance with size is uncertainty, and scholars in technological know-how and engineering have to determine and quantify uncertainties within the measurements they make. This booklet introduces size and uncertainty to moment and 3rd yr scholars of technology and engineering. Its method will depend on the across the world known and steered guidance for calculating and expressing uncertainty (known through the acronym GUM). The statistics underpinning the equipment are thought of and labored examples and workouts are unfold during the textual content. specified case reports in line with average undergraduate experiments are integrated to augment the rules defined within the booklet. This advisor can also be invaluable to pros in who're anticipated to grasp the modern tools during this more and more very important sector. extra on-line assets can be found to aid the booklet at www.cambridge.org/9780521605793.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Uncertainty in Measurement: Using the GUM
It is the true value that we would like to establish through measurement. We are forced to admit that instruments, no matter how sophisticated or expensive, are imperfect. Sometimes the quantities that we measure may vary slightly over the period of the measurement. Outside inﬂuences such as ﬂuctuations in temperature may affect the measuring instruments and the measurand. These factors conspire to prevent us from ﬁnding the true value of a quantity that we seek through measurement. Though we are unable to ﬁnd the true value of a quantity through measurement, we are able to obtain an estimate of the true value.
Thus, for E = 12 mv 2 , if m were measured in grams or v in kilometres per second, E would not be automatically obtained in joules. 2 Scientiﬁc and engineering notations Many values are conveniently expressed using a number, a preﬁx and an SI unit. For example, the mass of a small body may be expressed as 65 mg. The same value can be expressed using powers-of-ten notation. In fact, in situations in which preﬁxes are unfamiliar, it is perhaps preferable to adopt ‘powers-of-ten’ notation. 16 aC as the magnitude of the charge carried by an electron.
Some care is required when describing a measurand. For example, the purpose of a measurement may be to determine the density of a metal such as platinum. The density of any metal sample depends on the purity of the metal as well as on its temperature. Unless the description of the measurand includes speciﬁcation of purity as well as temperature, reported values of densities of samples of platinum are likely to vary signiﬁcantly from one observer to the next. 3 Units and standards A properly deﬁned unit allows quantities of the same kind to be compared.