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This assortment examines the query of nonhuman animal supplier by way of transferring emphasis from the human viewpoint towards that of alternative animals, exploring modes of animal resistance to human behaviors, and contemplating the methods the presence of animals refracts human notions like supplier and species.
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Extra info for Animals and Agency (Human-Animal Studies)
20 Ibid. 17 whale agency 27 an otherwise meaningless object. ”23 Moreover, affordances exist in shared environments. Their meaning is somewhat durable yet ultimately ephemeral; affordances are always present in the shared environment of many beings and come into specific instances of being in and through the business of living and interacting. Although they are described as opportunities, affordances are not always favourable courses of action. In certain situations, some affordances can inhibit action and others may need to be proactively avoided.
Ibid. 57 Ibid, 239. 58 Ibid. 59 As Shamu, the orcas are reduced to caricature in much the same way Sarah E. ” See this volume. 60 Ibid. 56 whale agency 41 Together, representations of whales enacted by aquariums, as well as the very structures of captivity appear to aggressively work against recognitions of the whales as unique individual subjects with agency. This is why attentiveness to diverse expressions of whale agency is all the more important in captivity. Although the messages embedded in aquarium structures suggest otherwise, the whales are not passive, visual objects, and they often express their agency in surprising ways despite the limiting conditions.
Such a recognition may enable us to think beyond the dominant Western dualistic ontology which radically divides and ranks human subjects above animal objects. Attentiveness to agency may enable us to see beyond stereotypical representations of species on display, so that we encounter real, live whale individuals and appreciate their significant otherness without reducing them to 63 marino, Wild Garden, 14–5. whale agency 43 aesthetic, consumable objects. There is much to be gained by this; as Mary Midgley sums up, “we can have duties to people, but not to things.