By Md Zahurul Haq
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For example, bifilar wire configuration and shielded cables significantly reduce electromagnetic disturbances if the shield is properly grounded. So, such configuration, for example the one installed in Plomin thermo power plant, has a sensor (a Pt1000 probe), a rather large amount of wire (15 m), a signal converter and amplifier (placed in the measurement cabinet), a ±10 VDC signal path (a 2 m cable), an acquisition system, communication (90 m Ethernet FTP cable) and finally a measurement computer.
34 Applied Measurement Systems Fig. 8. The capacitive TDC sensor. Fig. 9. Definition of loss angle. 4. Uncertainty sources and data treatment Cylinder pressure data measured by a transducer can be understood as being the sum of two components: (i) a smooth component, corresponding to the instantaneous average pressure through the entire cylinder volume; and (ii) a spurious component, originated by both the turbulent flow of gas inside the cylinder and the acoustic pulsations associated to combustion.
16. I. diesel engine running at 2900 rpm and full load). 41 Internal Combustion Engine Indicating Measurements Cylinder Pressure Derivative [bar/deg] 120 Cylinder Pressure [bar] 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 80 100 120 0 20 40 Crank Angle [deg] Crank Angle [deg] (a) (b) 60 80 100 120 Fig. 17. I. diesel engine running at 2900 rpm and full load). 9 Mass-Burned Fraction [-] Normalized Rate of Heat Release [1/deg] Considering the extension of the confidence intervals of pressure derivative data, it is expected that heat release results calculated from the charge amplifier data exhibit a more irregular and oscillatory pattern than those calculated from the current-to-voltage converter data.