By Jas Elsner
Paintings and the Roman Viewer offers a clean research of an important highbrow challenge within the historical past of artwork: why did the humanities of overdue Antiquity flow clear of classical naturalism in the direction of religious abstraction? Arguing from a detailed exam of old paintings photographs and texts, Jas Elsner indicates how an figuring out of Roman viewing practices tremendously deepens our perception into this basic transformation. the delicate arts of the early empire, similar to Pompeian portray, sculpted reliefs and silverware, entertain the possibility of irony, parody, and deconstruction. in contrast, the symbolic arts of the Christian empire, particularly the mosaics of Ravenna, eschew irony, whereas complexity continues to be, certainly intensifies, as a number of meanings compete to counterpoint a essentially sacred fact. by way of addressing the subtleties inherent in historic viewing, this examine embarks on a quest to complement our realizing of an period of profound creative switch.
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Additional resources for Art and the Roman viewer: the transformation of art from the Pagan world to Christianity
IV. 2) for 30 to 120 min at 25°C. With many strains it was possible to remove intact S-layer fragments from the peptidoglycan layer by incubating intact cells or cell wall fragments in low concentrations of urea (0,5 M) or GHCI (1 M). 5) or by high molar urea (8 M) and GHCI (5 M) treatment. The Dynamic Process of Assembly of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Macromolecules 39 V. 2) with and without the addition of bivalent cations at temperatures ranging from 4° to 60°C. VI. 2) at temperatures from 4° to 60°C.
6. B. Sleytr and R. Plohberger D. S-layer Reattachment to Cell Walls The present study confIrms previous observations (Sleytr, 1975, 1976) that isolated S-layer subunits possess the ability to reassemble into regular arrays on naked cell walls from which they had been removed or on those of other organisms. Frequently, when mixtures of protomers from two different organisms were used for reassembly experiments, both types of lattice were formed on one cell (Fig. 11). S-layer selfassembly products also reattach to wall fragments or naked sacculi when incubated as a mixture at neutral pH.
This temperature-dependent rearrangement of assembly products was not accompanied by a change in the molecular weights of the lattice protomers. , 1973), can be excluded. Furthermore, when the GHCI, urea or low pH disintegrated S-layer protomers were dialyzed in the absence of bivalent cations, predominantly flat sheets were formed as assembly products. forces, brief ultrasonication) were reformed when their fragments were maintained overnight at 60°C. Similarly, when the peptidoglycan layer of small, irregularly shaped cell wall fragments is digested with lysozyme, the liberated S-layer fragments possess the ability to fuse and rearrange at 60°C into cylinders identical to the popUlation shown in Fig.