By American College of Surgeons
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Additional info for ATLS: Advanced Trauma Life Support for Doctors (Student Course Manual), 8th Edition
For i ϭ 1, 2, . . , n, let X i ϭ µ i ϭ ∑ ijϭ1 c ij Z j. 3. Return X′ ϭ (X′1, X′2, . . , X′n) T. The use of a multivariate log normal distribution for generating a covariate vector requires special consideration (10, 16, 17) that is beyond the scope of this text. c. Joint Multivariate Distributions Based on Modeled Correlations For most simulation work, the correlation terms are largely conjectural. However, covariate information, like any other data, can be described using a model. The use of joint functions for the purpose of estimating missing covariate information has been described previously (18, 19).
6 Observation IO Model The ﬁnal level of the IO model hierarchy is used to predict observations. Observation values are simulated using individual IO model predictions and a random effects model to account for stochastic variation in the observation values. 1 Observation Parameter Model The random effects model samples a value εj (the subscript j is enumerated across all individuals and observations) typically from a normal distribution with mean 0 and variability RUV (random unidentiﬁed variability) [Eq.
2. M Hale, DW Gillespie, SK Gupta, NH Holford. Clinical trial simulation streamlining your drug development process. Appl Clin Trials 15:35–40, 1996. 3. C Peck, R Desjardins. Simulation of clinical trials—encouragement and cautions. Appl Clin Trials 5:30–32, 1996. 4. C Maxwell, JG Domenet, CRR Joyce. Instant experience in clinical trials: a novel aid to teaching by simulation. J Clin Pharmacol 11(5):323–331, 1971. 5. MD Hale. Using population pharmacokinetics for planning a randomized concentration-controlled trial with a binary response.