By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
All through their evolution, dwelling creatures have built platforms to connect themselves to various substrate textures. As is the case in lots of technical platforms, animals use friction and adhesion to generate an attachment strength for overcoming drag. In contemporary many years, our wisdom of such structures has enormously elevated. This quantity summarizes greater than 10 years of extremely structural and experimental reviews on insect attachment structures and provides an updated assessment of this topic. Many examples are offered and the final ideas of the interrelationship among the development of attachment structures and the functionality are defined exhibiting the ideas of morphology and extremely constitution of such structures. the foundations of layout fascinated about the attachment structures defined may well encourage new principles on the subject of the biomimetics of latest surface-active fabrics. viewers: This quantity presents a very good advent to organic attachment and should be of curiosity to biologist, zoologist, fabrics scientists and engineers.
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Extra info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Two cone-shaped outgrowths are present on the ventral side of the femur and trochanter. A strong hook is formed by the trochanteral outgrowth, together with an additional thick and hard plate. While attaching, the mite interlocks itself onto the bird feather between the barbules, using the structures mentioned. The size of these hooks corresponds to the distance between the neighbouring barbules of the feather. Interestingly, hook-like attachment devices exist only in mites parasitising on the stiff part of the feather.
In representatives of Hymenoptera, the wing-interlocking mechanism consists of a row of curved hooks on the hindwing and an S-shaped fold of the forewing (Fig. 7 C-E). It is likely that stability of attachment between forewings and hindwings has an effect on the flight performance. It has been shown that foraging flight range in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile femorata (Megachilidae), correlates with the number of wing hooks (Abrol, 1986). There is an additional mechanism in parasitic Hymenoptera to interlock both forewings with each other.
The angle of rotation may vary or remain constant (Neville, 1975). A set of sheets that has rotated approximately 180° is usually called lamella (Fig. 3 C). The thickness of lamella is dependent on the thickness of the microfibrils and rotation angle. Such a model very well explains the parabolic pattern as an optical artefact. Since it is impossible to obtain an ideally parallel section, the rotational angle of the microfibrils in successive layers of the lamella, will compose the parabolic pattern.