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By L. J. Hume

Such a lot bills of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) care for him as a prophet of both utilitarianism or of liberal democracy. This booklet discusses a much less known yet vitally important point of his political inspiration: his concept of the way executive associations may be organised with the intention to functionality as effective and but responsive guardians of the community's pursuits. It hence specializes in his programme for he government and judicial branches of presidency instead of for the legislature and the citizens. Dr Hume means that eighteenth-century political inspiration used to be richer in rules approximately govt that has frequently been allowed, yet that Bentham's exact traits of brain enabled him to widen and deepen these rules a lot additional than his contemporaries may have foreseen.

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Sample text

When John says 'You are French' to Paul, what he says is true (and is presented as true) if and only if Paul is French . The property of being the addressee is not a constitu­ ent of the proposition expressed: it is used only to help the hearer identify the reference, which is a constituent of the proposition expressed. Because it insists on maintaining the mode of presentation of the reference as a constituent of the proposition expressed, it seems that the neo-Fregean theory deprives itself of the means of capturing the second intuition.

532) Clearly, this amounts to conceding that the complete content of our attitudes involves a mode of presentation and not just a singular proposition. There is no disagreement between the Fregean (or the neo-Fregean) and the neo-Russellian on this score. The difference between them lies elsewhere : contrary to the Fregean, the neo­ Russellian draws a distinction between the proposition expressed and the complete content of the attitudes, which from now on I shall call the 'thought'. It is the thought associated with an utterance, not the proposition it expresses, which constitutes its cognitive signifi­ cance according to the neo-Russellian theory.

So we may grant both premisses in the argument, and still reject the conclusion. The mode of presentation of the reference (along with the feature REF) belongs to the meaning 34 De re communication of the sentence, the meaning of the sentence presents the truth­ condition of the utterance in a certain way, and the proposition expressed is the truth-condition of the utterance under that mode of presentation; all this is consistent with the neo-Russellian theory, which claims that the mode of presentation of the reference does not belong to the proposition expressed.

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