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By Eduard Bernstein

This is often the 1st entire new translation of Eduard Bernstein's (1850-1932) well-known and influential paintings. it's going to offer scholars with a correct and unabridged version of the vintage safeguard of democratic socialism and the 1st major critique of progressive Marxism from in the socialist circulation. First released in 1899, on the peak of the Revisionist Debate, it argued that capitalism was once now not heading for the main challenge expected through Marx, and that socialism will be accomplished by way of piecemeal reform inside of a democratic constitutional framework. Bernstein's paintings is the point of interest of 1 of crucial political debates of recent instances, and the most important for the sunshine it casts on "the predicament of Communism."

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Here was, in a certain sense, a new Marx, who was truly concrete and at the same time went beyond the rigid practical and theoretical Marxism of the parties. 51 Marcuse must have felt an affinity for the doctrine in Marx’s Manuscripts, as the theory of alienation, the humanism which undercut both philosophical idealism and materialism, and the broad philosophical perspectives found there corresponded with his own emerging theory. Marx’s early writings provided powerful support for Marcuse’s own enterprise, which could inspire him to develop the full philosophical-revolutionary import of Marxism which he thought was being distorted and covered over by the leading Marx interpreters and tendencies of the day.

Since the 1930s, critique of ideology has been Marcuse’s forte. ” Marcuse argues that whereas the Marxian dialectic is a tool of critical and revolutionary thought that analyses the contradictions and antagonisms of a social order, Soviet Marxism surrenders the critical dialectic and uses it to justify the existing regime, by codifying it into a philosophical system which contains categories, laws and principles that are used to legitimize the rationality of the established Soviet society. Marcuse shows in a penetrating discussion how various texts of Engels, Lenin, and Stalin are used to produce a version of Marxism at odds in significant ways with Marx’s own historical materialism.

Furthermore, Marcuse seems to accept Khrushchev’s doctrine of “peaceful co-existence” and call for disarmament at face value, as well as Khrushchev’s claim that the Soviet Union is moving toward the “second phase” of communism. These remarks suggest that Marcuse continued to believe in liberalizing trends in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s and that the Khrushchev administration was a vehicle of liberalization. S. S. politics was becoming more aggressive and interventionist in the Third World and was forcing the Soviet Union to focus more on competition with the West and the arms race, thus suspending Marcuse, Soviet Marxism, p.

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