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By Willem Renema

This publication bargains exchanges among the fields of paleontology and zoology as styles of biodiversity have lengthy attracted the eye of either biologists and paleontologists. It covers the advance of remoted island faunas, paleogeography and zoomorphology. The e-book exhibits that styles should not continually what they appear if checked out and not using a spatial or temporal reference.

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Sample text

Their study also emphasized that “the biogeographic history of the Southern Hemisphere cannot be entirely reduced to a simple sequence of vicariance events” (Sanmartin and Ronquist (2004: 216) and that dispersal has also played a part, as is becoming increasingly clear from recent studies. We think this is an understatement. For their study they selected published phylogenies meeting four criteria, among which (1) monophyletic groups, distributed almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, and claimed to be of Gondwanan origin; and (2) represented in at least two (preferably three or more) of the areas studied.

The absence of an Australian development precludes an Australian–South American link. According to Wikström et al. (2004), the Primulaceae and Myrsinaceae combined originated c. 75 Ma. This is too young for an African–South American link except by dispersal. However, if Nemeobiinae originated from a dispersing ancestor, a North American–East Asian link could also come into consideration. As to the age of the Riodinidae we have very little information. Hall et al. (2004) reported on a fossil in Dominican amber, 15–25 Ma (at the same time demonstrating that records of older riodinid fossils are unreliable due to lack of relevant details).

We do not pretend to give an exhaustive explanation of the distribution of the respective groups across the globe, not to mention the history of the biotas to which these insects belong. Distribution history is an integral part of the evolution of a species (and higher categories). In his thesis on the Lycaenidae of the Australasiatic region, Toxopeus (1930) aptly called the species a function of space and time. Individuals, populations, and species are not objects moving at random wherever their legs, wings, or the wind bring them.

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