By Nessar Ahmed, Maureen Dawson, Chris Smith, Ed Wood
Biology of ailment describes the biology of a number of the human issues and illness which are encountered in a scientific environment. it truly is designed for first and moment yr scholars in biomedical technological know-how courses and also will be a powerful reference for health and wellbeing technological know-how pros in addition to being useful to scholars starting scientific university. actual instances are used to demonstrate the significance of biology in realizing the reasons of illnesses, in addition to in analysis and treatment.
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However, if a positive result is obtained in an individual who does not have the disease, this is referred to as a false positive (FP). In individuals without the disease, the test results should be a true negative (TN) but occasionally a negative result is obtained in a patient who has the disease and this is referred to as a false negative (FN). The ability of a test to discriminate between diseased and healthy states is described by its clinical speciﬁcity and sensitivity. The speciﬁcity of a test is the measure of the incidence of negative results in individuals free of the disease, and deﬁned as: ease and a positive result in all patients affected by the disease.
The term normal range is still used synonymously with reference range. Reﬂux esophagitis A back flow of gastric juice from the stomach into the lower end of the esophagus. Regurgitation An imperfect closing of the heart valves leading to leakage and backflow (compare with stenosis). Relapse A relapse occurs when, following a period of apparent recovery, the symptoms of the disease return. Programmed theory of aging Suggests that each species has an inbuilt biological clock and that aging is a genetically programmed series of events.
Sign mmm Something the clinician specifically looks or feels for, such as redness or swelling of the skin, when examining the patient. Symptom An indication that a disease is present and something of which the patient complains, for example, nausea, malaise or pain. Syncope Fainting with a temporary loss of consciousness resulting from a temporarily inadequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Syndrome A term applied to describe certain diseases that are characterized by multiple abnormalities and features that form a distinct clinical picture.