By Nancy L. Segal
The exact “Jim twins” have been raised in separate households and met for the 1st time at age thirty-nine, simply to find that they either suffered pressure complications, bit their fingernails, smoked Salems, loved woodworking, and vacationed at the similar Florida seashore. this instance of the aptitude energy of genetics captured common media realization in 1979 and encouraged the Minnesota examine of Twins Reared aside. This landmark research into the nature-nurture debate shook the clinical neighborhood by means of demonstrating, throughout a couple of qualities, that twins reared individually are as alike as these raised jointly.
As a postdoctoral fellow after which as assistant director of the Minnesota research, Nancy L. Segal presents an eagerly expected review of its clinical contributions and their impact on public awareness. The study’s proof of genetic effect on person transformations in features corresponding to character (50%) and intelligence (70%) overturned traditional principles approximately parenting and educating. Treating childrens another way and nurturing their inherent abilities abruptly a fairer procedure than treating all of them a similar. Findings of genetic effect on physiological features corresponding to cardiac and immunologic functionality have resulted in extra particular ways to sickness prevention and remedy. And symptoms of a much better genetic impression on male than girl homosexuality have furthered debate relating to sexual orientation.
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Extra info for Born Together - Reared Apart: The Landmark Minnesota Twin Study
F. 01; the mean values do not differ significantly]. 44 B O R N TO G E T H E R — R E A R E D A PA RT most contact measures had little influence on the twins’ behavioral outcomes and some associations were in a counterintuitive direction. 16) between days before separation and feelings of familiarity at the time of assessment. This implied that the twins who were together longer felt less familiar with one another than those who were separated sooner! This counterintuitive association was possibly a chance finding.
2 percent) were reared by an unrelated family. The remainder were raised in other circumstances, including biological or nonbiological caretakers or multiple placements with relatives or nonrelatives. Individuals who had multiple early place- Table 2-7. 0 262 Note: Individuals in four triplet sets are each counted once. 1 5 , 0 0 0 Q U E ST I O N S × 1 37 PA I R S Table 2-8. 6 35 3 7 11 Rearing Circumstance Unrelated-unrelated Related-related Unrelated-related Complex case–other DZA Note: Rearing categories in this table were collapsed across the specific biological and nonbiological rearing circumstances listed in Table 2-7.
As the data accumulated, these casual observations were confirmed; empirical quantitative analyses showed very modest shared environmental effects on many traits. Behavioral similarity appeared to be explained more by common genes than by common environments. Most of the MISTRA data were gathered by the six primary investigators, University of Minnesota physicians, and graduate student assistants. The exception was the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) that was administered to twins at the same time by separate examiners hired through the university’s neuropsychological clinic.