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For using IB Chemistry typical point
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Additional resources for Chemistry for Use with the International Baccalaureate : Standard Level
20 The small dense central part of the atom. • Relative isotopic masses (RIM) and abundance fractions are determined using a mass spectrometer, the main components of which are shown below. ionization and acceleration + – deflection + + mass spectrum detection • The electron arrangement for an atom or ion is written showing the electrons in order from closest to the nucleus outwards. Each electron shell can hold a maximum of 2n2 electrons where n is the shell number. N S applied electric fields ionize atoms, then accelerate ions ions are deflected by a magnetic field n=4 n=3 particles are sorted by mass/charge ratio n=2 n=1 • The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation and includes ultraviolet, visible and infrared light.
Nitrogen: 3 bonds (central atom) Hydrogen: 1 bond each N H Pair up single electrons between the central atom and the outer atoms to form covalent bonds. H N H H The triple covalent bond between nitrogen atoms is very strong and helps us to understand why nitrogen is such an unreactive gas. It requires a great deal of energy (945 kJ mol–1, compared to just 242 kJ mol–1 for chlorine gas) to break the triple bond between the atoms and so allow nitrogen to form new bonds with other atoms. The amount of energy required to break a bond is known as the bond dissociation enthalpy, and is generally measured in kilojoules per mole of molecules dissociated.
An ionic bond can be defined as the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ions. The ionic compound formed is hard and brittle and is often described as a ‘salt’. 2 (a) Sodium, a soft, silvery metal, and chlorine, a greenish gas, react vigorously. (b) White crystalline table salt is formed. Sodium reacts explosively with chlorine gas to produce the white crystalline solid sodium chloride. Sodium is a highly reactive metallic element in group 1 of the periodic table. It has an electron arrangement of 2,8,1.