By L. Giles, K. Singer
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Additional resources for Clinical Anatomy and Mgmt of Back Pain [Vol 3 - Cervical Spine]
Lation of the s u rface a nd c hond rocyte clone fo rm a tion o c c u r. The p ro Liferation may b e r el a ted to immobilization, re l a t i ve o r a b so l u t e . T h e re is n o sec u re know l edg e o f physiologi c a l fu nctio n of the m e n i s c i o t her than that of lubrication. ly u n aware a n d over which we have n o v ol u n t ary contro l . Claude Bern ard ( 1 9 5 7) p r op o sed that a d iv ine p rovid e n c e considered these a u tonomic act ivi t ie s far too importa n t to e ntru st to a c a p r i c i o u s will.
Due to trauma (Fig. 5). the cervical spine The zygapophysial joints are palpable about 25 mm include the occiput, the inion, the superior nuchal lateral to the respective spinous processes (Fig. 6). The posterior landmarks of line and the mastoid process. The occiput is the They are often tender if abnormal and they feel like posterior portion of the skull including the floor. The little domes lying deep below the trapezius muscle. inion (bump of knowledge) is a dome-shaped bump The patient should be completely relaxed for palpa in the middle of the occipital region and is the centre ble perception of these joints.
The intervertebral discs show the greatest vertical height anteriorly. the thoracic region is readily a pp arent from the vertebral body dimensions. In the cervical spine the upper end·plate dimensions at C6 and C7 are significantly greater than those of the more superior cervical vertebrae. There is a t re nd towards increasing values from C3 to T 1 for the transverse dimensions of both the vertebral body and the superior articular facets (Milne, 1991). Uncinate processes are best d eve loped at C3 -6, but they are still evident down to T2 or T3 (Fig.