By Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Hilde Bosmans PhD (auth.), Jan Bogaert MD, PhD, Steven Dymarkowski MD, PhD, Andrew M. Taylor MD, MRCP, FRCR (eds.)
MRI has turn into the popular noninvasive imaging modality for the center and nice vessels. The great technological development accomplished in recent times has supplied the person with cutting-edge MRI platforms, yet their optimum use could be constrained by way of limited understanding of the aptitude sufferer profit and the need for educating. This generally illustrated quantity, has been particularly compiled to satisfy those wishes. crucial theoretical heritage details is equipped, and imaging acquisition and power pitfalls are thought of intimately. most significantly, dependent instructions are supplied at the interpretation of medical info within the wide selection of cardiac pathology that may be encountered. all through, the emphasis is at the implementation of cardiac MRI in scientific practice.
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Extra resources for Clinical Cardiac MRI: With Interactive CD-ROM
20 pression is achieved with a 180 spectral inversion pulse and a time delay equal to that used in normal STIR imaging (Fig. 20). 2 Saturation Bands Saturation bands are normal 90º RF excitation pulses that are applied on tissues prior to the measurement, thereby avoiding interference of their signal with the images. This is an efficient way to suppress image artifacts originating from a traceable source that does not have to be visualized in the image. A commonly used application of saturation bands is slabs positioned over the chest wall to avoid high signal from subcutaneous fat in T1-weighted imaging or to avoid motion-related artifacts in coronary MR angiography (Fig.
2003). A third IR pulse may be added to null the signal from fat to produce a triple IR sequence. Disadvantages of these pulses are that slowly flowing blood near the myocardium can be incompletely suppressed and may appear hyperintense. Furthermore, parts of the myocardium can be partially suppressed, which would result in hypointense regions. 5 Contrast-Enhanced Inversion-Recovery MRI of the Myocardium Several studies have shown that myocardial infarction tissue can be best imaged after injection of paramagnetic contrast agents using GE acquisitions with a 180º IR prepulse, called contrastenhanced inversion recovery MRI (CE-IR MRI; Fig.
Many authors have described delayed hyperenhancement in myocarditis, infiltrative cardiomyopathy, pericardial inflammation, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and cardiac masses (Bogaert et al. 2004). Other studies in myocardial infarction which have focused on T2-weighted MRI have suggested that, although T2-weighted MRI may be able to detect the presence of myocardial damage, the areas that exhibit increased signal intensity are probably related to the presence of myocardial edema, rather than the myocardial infarction, especially in the acute phase (Dymarkowski et al.