By Frank H. Duffy M.D., Vasudeva G. Iyer M.D., D.M., Walter W. Surwillo Ph.D. (auth.)
Electroencephalography is really an interdisciplinary pastime, related to options and methods from various diverse disciplines. integrated are simple physics, neuro body structure, electrophysiology, electrochemistry, electronics, and electric engineer ing, in addition to neurology. Given this fascinating and numerous mix of parts, the educate ing of an EEG technician, a neurology resident, or an EEG researcher within the fundamentals of scientific electroencephalography offers an unusual problem. within the realm of expertise, it really is quite effortless to procure a technically sufficient EEG just by studying to persist with a protocol and by way of properly atmosphere some of the switches at the EEG desktop on the correct time. yet event has proven that the facility to procure high quality EEGs on a regimen, day by day foundation from a wide selection of sufferers calls for knowing and data past what's discovered by way of rote. Likewise, wisdom above and past what's won by way of uncomplicated participation in an EEG examining is important to properly and comprehensively interpret the list. Such wisdom comes from an realizing of the fundamental rules upon which the perform of scientific EEG is based - ideas that derive from many of the disciplines cited.
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Extra resources for Clinical Electroencephalography and Topographic Brain Mapping: Technology and Practice
An examination of Fig. 4 shows that C is in parallel with the input to the next stage of amplification. This being the case, the current flowing through R must divide between C and the amplifier of the next stage. Since impedance due to the capacitor decreases with increasing frequency, the C branch of the circuit is a low-impedance pathway for the high frequencies. Therefore, increasingly higher frequencies may be thought of as being shunted away from the amplifier input by the C. 1 R - The frequency response of a high-frequency filter can be approximated by straight lines, as with the frequency response of the low-frequency filter.
Electrons, of course, are negatively charged particles. The plate inside the glass envelope is positive, as it is connected through the meter to the positive terminal of the battery. Since unlike electrical charges attract, the electrons coming off the filament are attracted to the plate and flow in that direction. A flow of electrons, of course, is an electric current, which accounts for the deflection observed on the currentmeasuring meter. Edison can hardly be blamed for not knowing the explanation of this phenomenon at the time of its discovery.
Some features of the EEG may be accentuated while others may be reduced by careful use of the filters. For example, suppose that some portions of a patient's sleep record suggested that there may be an asymmetry in the sleep-spindle activity, but that the recording was partially obscured by the high-amplitude, slow-wave activity of sleep. Here is where the low-frequency filters come in. Switching the low-frequency filter from 1 to 5 Hz will eliminate a greater portion of the slow-wave activity without significantly attenuating the sleep-spindle activity.