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By Chris Kirtley, MD PhD (Auth.)

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The pelvis is a body segment rather than a joint, and its terminology is a bit messy – sagittal plane motion about a mediolateral axis passing through both hip joints is called tilt, while frontal plane motion is variously called obliquity, list or lateral tilt. To specify the direction, the pelvis is divided into a right and left hemipelvis. Of course, whatever happens to one hemipelvis, the opposite happens on the contralateral side. So, an upward obliquity on the right is the same as a downward obliquity on the left, and an internal rotation on the right is the same as an external rotation on the left.

Although this is clearly not happening in the real world, the proponents of such models point out that such artefacts are also present, but hidden by the joint constraints of other models. By visualizing the disarticulation, errors in tracking the bones are revealed for all to see. Despite all its weaknesses and potential inaccuracies, the MHH model continues to be used for most routine 3D clinical gait analysis. It has the advantage of being quite quick to apply (after an initial training period), which is particularly important when the patient is a child, and with experience many of its difficulties and idiosyncrasies can be overcome.

Hip or ankle angle) is close to zero. LIMITATIONS OF 2D ANALYSIS Although much valuable pioneering work on gait was performed using these techniques, 2D analysis is currently rarely used for clinical or research purposes, and 3D techniques are now accepted as standard. There are two major reasons for this: parallax error and perspective error. PARALLAX ERROR Parallax error occurs when objects move away from the optical axis of the camera (Fig. 11). Of course, it is impossible to completely eliminate parallax error but it should be minimized by aligning the optical axis of the camera with the central part of the motion, and zooming the lens in as much as possible to record only the required motion.

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