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Extra resources for Clinical Immunology of the Dog and Cat, 2nd Edition
Leukocyte chemotaxis. • Clonal expansion of T and B lymphocytes. • Regulation (or suppression) of T and B lymphocytes. • Cytotoxicity. • Inflammation. 39 BASIC IMMUNOLOGY 78 tissue biopsy 6 1 lyse to extract RNA 2 new double stranded DNA incorporates SYBR green, which emits fluorescence reverse transcribe cDNA or 3 heat to 95˚C to break double helix 7 probe 4 primer primers anneal at 45–70˚C extension of primer dissociates probe, permitting fluorescence new DNA synthesized by polymerase 5 PCR Base Line Subtracted RFU 79 3000 3000 2500 2500 2000 2000 1500 1500 1000 1000 500 500 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 Cycle 40 78, 79 Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
These effector cells express a restricted array of homing receptors. Immunological memory is generated as part of the immune response, and memory lymphocytes may selectively display homing receptor molecules, enabling them to have access to areas of the body where they are likely to re-encounter antigen. 74 Structure of histocompatibility antigens. Class I histocompatibility antigens consist of a transmembrane α chain with three external domains, and the associated β2 microglobulin. There is conserved sequence in the α3 domain that has homology with the constant region of the Ig molecule (part of the ‘immunoglobulin superfamily’), and the α1 and α2 domains have variable sequence.
Other CD4+ T cell subsets are those involved in immunoregulation (see below). It is likely that further functional subpopulations will be defined in the future. At the time of writing, there is evidence for a new subset (Th17) defined by the ability to preferentially produce IL-17 in response to APC production of IL-6, IL-23 and TGFβ, the use of STAT3 in signal transduction and a functional role in the immune response to particular parasites and bacteria. Th17 cells may also have a pathogenic role, as they are increased in number in some autoimmune responses, and IL-17 expression is increased in neoplasia.