By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson
Following an creation to coevolutionary techniques, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite ways for checking out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the impression of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a diversified assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on vegetation, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are robust versions for the research of coevolution simply because they're effortless to monitor, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their complete lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're superb to producing a man-made review of coevolution—and, thereby, provide a thrilling framework for integrating the techniques of coadaptation and codiversification.
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Additional info for Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History
Although some level of specificity is a precondition for cophylogenetic congruence, it is far from sufficient. For example, the bird louse genus Brueelia contains species that are host specific, yet their phylogeny shows no congruence with host phylogeny (Johnson et al. 2002a; Clayton et al. 2003a). Understanding the relationship between specificity and congruence provides a window into the relationship between coevolution in micro- and macroevolutionary time. For example, are the factors that reinforce host specificity the same as the factors that lead to congruence?
Rózsa et al. (1996) reported that aggregation is reduced on more social species of hosts, presumably because of increased horizontal transmission. Whiteman and Parker (2004) showed that aggregation is also reduced in more social populations of a single species of host, the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Interestingly, in both studies the impact of host sociality on aggregation was greater for Ischnocera than Amblycera, perhaps because ischnoceran lice are less mobile than amblyceran lice.
A Amblycera An B Bo F Boopida Fungus H I Anoplura Bacteria Helminth Ischnocera V 1 Virus Clayton et al. (2008). 2 Brown et al. (2005), Da Silva et al. (2013a), Hornok et al. (2010), Mullen and Durden (2009), Reeves et al. (2005). When a good parasite goes bad: Effects of lice on wild hosts At one time, the conventional wisdom was that lice on wild birds and mammals were “good” parasites with relatively little effect on host fitness (Rothschild and Clay 1957; Ash 1960; Marshall 1981a; Lehmann 1993).