By Satvir S. Tevethia, Fred Rapp (auth.), Michael G. Hanna Jr., Fred Rapp (eds.)
It has lengthy been suspected, and lately proven, that there's an etiologic dating among numerous viruses and of course taking place neoplasias. Virus precursors within the kind of nucleic acids or antigens have regularly been linked to sure neoplasias. even though, the function of those virus-specified precursors in etiology continues to be vague. contemporary stories of virus-associated neo plasias have ended in advances in molecular innovations, that have yielded increas ingly delicate assays for detection of virus-specific nucleic acids, and that have enabled the disruption of virus debris with no concomitant loss in antigenicity of the elements. those tactics have, in flip, led to molecular probes that let extra definitive review of the host reaction to its virus and to the tumor cellphone with which the virus or its precursors are linked. reviews of the immune reaction and standing of the host have supplied very important informa tion approximately carcinogenesis and the instruments for seroepidemiological stories of numerous cancers. those seroepidemiological stories have verified that numerous human cancers, e. g. , Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, are most likely virus-induced, and that antibodies which are diagnostic and prog nostic for those ailments are detectable. the realization that pussycat leukemia is a ailment transmitted horizontally via a pandemic resulted basically from immunologi cal experiments.
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Extra info for Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology: Immunobiology of Oncogenic Viruses
Specific antigens in polyoma-virustransformed cells have also been demonstrated by methods which measure cellular immunity (Habel, 1962; Sjogren, 1964; Datta and Vandeputte, 1971; Sjogren and Bansal, 1971). , 1968; Meyer and Birg, 1970; Volkers and Pitts, 1973). 3. , 1967; Berman, 1967). Specific cell-surface antigens in adenovirus-transformed cells have also been detected in vitro by the colony inhibition test using lymphocytes from immune or tumor-bearing animals (Hellstrom and Sjogren, 1967; Ankerst and Sjogren, 1970).
The antibody prepared against the tumor cells themselves in the syngeneic host reacted specifically only with the tumor type used for immunization. Immunization with fetal tissue failed to provide protection against challenge by virus-transformed cells. On the other hand, work carried out by Coggin and Anderson (1974) indicates that the cross-reacting antigens present in embryonic cells may be capable of inducing resistance to a challenge of SV40-transformed cells. d. Nonnal Cell Antigens. Hayry and Defendi (1970), using the mixed hemadsorption test, suggested that S antigen may be a normal cell antigen that is specifically unmasked during SV40 transformation.
1975). This forces the conclusion that the molecular hybridization technique is not sufficiently sensitive to pick up a small region of homology which confers T-antigen reactivity or that the T antigen represents a virus-modified host protein. 3. , 1963). T antigen was detected by both complementfixation and immunofluorescence tests using sera from animals bearing adenovirus 12 tumors (Pope and Rowe, 1964). The antigen was located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells transformed or infected with adenovirus 12.