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In Kolponomos the common opening with the anterior lacerate foramen, the postglenoid foramen is vestigial, the posterior carotid is clearly anterior to the posterior lacerate foramen, and M, is absent. , emphasis on the internal jugular drainage of the cranium and thus loss of the postglenoid exit), but the sum total suggests that Allocyon and Kolponomos represent early offshoots of the same stock that yielded enaliarctine pinnipedimorphs and that both have their roots in the earliest differentiation within the Superfamily Ursoidea.

Talonid as wide as or wider than trigonid. Corresponding to modification of the M' talon (character 9), amphicynodontids enlarge the talonid of the lower carnassial to accommodate the M — f M longitudinal protocone and associated metaconule of 17. metaconid large. Modification of the M, trigonid more M — 1 . j for crushing in derived amphicynodontids involved enlargement of the metaconid relative to surrounding cusps. In volume it comes to and Table 3. match the paraconid and Asterisks indicate reversal to primitive state.

Final preparation of the type specimens of K. clallamensis and K. newportensis was skillfully done by Edward Pedersen of the American Museum of Natural History. Photographs of these specimens and line drawings were carefully prepared by Chester Tarka and Lorraine Meeker of the American Museum. Xiaoming Wang helped with the PAUP analysis Ray of phylogeny. Fay, Oligocene desmostylians and a discussion of tethytherian systematics. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 59. H. 1982. Ecology and behavior of the Pacific walrus.

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