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By Thomas J. Biersteker, Sue E. Eckert

Teams committing acts of terrorism have tailored their technique of financing to elude detection because the 9-11 assaults within the usa. Surveying the worldwide community’s multi-year attempt to chop off terrorist investment, this quantity deals a much-needed research of a fancy, broadly mentioned, but poorly understood topic. whereas books on terrorism have touched upon the subject, this is often the 1st accomplished, balanced, and scholarly evaluate of terrorist financing, its tools, and efforts to counter it. Bringing jointly major analysts of terrorism, diplomacy, worldwide finance, legislations, and criminology, Countering the Financing of Terrorism offers a severe overview of the overseas attempt to limit terrorist financing. It evaluates the prices and merits and gives suggestions for more suitable rules for the longer term.

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In other words, it must be resilient. Virtual networks are designed to optimize resilience. Resilience requires both redundancy of nodes to reduce the effects of extraction (the removal of a node by enemy military or law enforcement personnel) and separation of nodes to reduce the effects of contagion (the process by which the discovery of one node leads to the discovery of additional nodes). 30 Jessica Stern and Amit Modi There is often an inherent tradeoff between efficiency and resilience in that maximizing efficiency requires coordination and communication (connectedness), which makes an organization vulnerable to penetration.

And when JUI offshoots like Jamiat-ul-Mujahideen and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen focus their attention on Kashmir, the groups can bring in support from the Pakistani government and the Pakistani and Kashmiri diasporas. The splintering of the larger group can thus help the organization better cater to diverse market niches, but we will see shortly that splintering is not always adaptive. A fourth factor in determining whether an organization’s mission will be sticky or spry is the attitude of the employees and volunteers.

From the viewpoint of the original stakeholders in the organization, there is a principal– agent problem if the group’s mission shifts. An important example of this is when a state funds insurgent groups in the belief that it will have total control over the groups’ activities. But if the groups find ways to diversify their revenue streams, they may eventually engage in activities that are counter to the state’s interests. The Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) is an example of a group that shifted its mission to attract new donors and, like the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the IMU eventually joined forces with al Qaeda.

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