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By National Research Council, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Materials Advisory Board, Committee on Assessment of Security Technologies for Transportation

Traditionally, such a lot terrorist assaults on civilian pursuits have concerned using firearms or explosives, and present protective recommendations are aimed toward combating assaults perpetrated through such capability. notwithstanding, using the nerve agent sarin in 1995 to assault the Tokyo subway process, using the U.S. mail in 2001 to distribute letters containing anthrax spores, and the invention in 2004 of the organic toxin ricin in U.S. Senate workplace constructions in Washington, D.C., display that chemical and organic brokers were further to terrorists' arsenals. assaults regarding chemical/biological brokers are of serious trouble, not just end result of the power for mass casualties but additionally simply because there's no approach or expertise fielded at the present time which could reply properly to this risk. because the usa and different international locations reconsider the protection measures they've got in position to avoid or protect opposed to such assaults, the hazards to the air transportation method as a prime goal turn into transparent. protecting the U.S. Air Transportation approach opposed to Chemical and organic Threats is an exploration of protecting techniques that may be used to guard air transportation areas (specifically, airport terminals and airplane) opposed to assault with chemical or organic brokers and makes techniques with admire to the function of TSA in enforcing those suggestions.

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Additional resources for Defending the U.S. Air Transportation System Against Chemical and Biological Threats

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Its specificity is defined in terms of acute toxicity rather than in terms of a predetermined list of anticipated chemical agents. In the case of an attack involving a slow-acting agent, the non-detection-based strategy would begin to mitigate the impact of the attack immediately by continuously removing biological aerosol particles from the air, as illustrated in Figure 3-4. This approach would bypass the response time delay of a detection-based approach associated with a biological assay, alarm resolution, and response decision making.

The threat assessment document should include the best intelligence on the most likely sources and sites of terrorist attacks against the system and should be updated continuously. The TSA should also build on modeling work conducted under DARPA’s Immune Building Program and earlier DHS work with two airports to facilitate the development of defensive strategies and to help evaluate their efficacy. Models must include explicit consideration of the behavior of people as decision makers and as members of crowds, although research is lacking in both areas in the context of terrorism.

L. T. Hadley, M. E. Gard, “Reagentless Detection and Classification of Individual Bioaerosol Particles in Seconds,” Anal. , Vol. 76, pp. 373-378, 2004. S. AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AGAINST CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS DETECTION -BASED PARADIGM vs. NON-DETECTION BASED PARADIGM INCOMING AIR CHEMICAL 10 SEC BIO 2 MIN FILTER SAMPLE 5 MIN PRETREAT 60 MIN INCUBATE 30 SEC 2 MIN MEASURE ~20 SEC >10 MIN EVALUATE <1 MIN >80 MIN VERIFY ~DAYS?! CONTINUOUSLY TREAT RESPOND DECIDE WHAT TO DO FIGURE 3-4 Typical detection times for chemical and biological agents (left-hand side).

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