By Dmitri N. Fedorenko, Sergei Golovatch
The current monograph is a hugely unique and thorough test at revising the wing constitution of the beetles, with certain emphasis positioned not just at the venation styles saw, but in addition on folding. mixed, all of those styles are severely re-evaluated to supply new, hugely unorthodox insights in beetle evolution. The paintings can also be abundantly illustrated by way of unique drawings displaying the entire helpful information of beetle wing constitution, together with form, venation, sclerotization and folding styles. the current monograph is imperative for college kids in beetle taxonomy, evolution and palaeontology. Dr. Dmitri Fedorenko, born 1962, is Senior Scientist on the Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. His major pursuits lie within the taxonomy, ecology, geography and evolution of the beetles, the ground-beetles particularly. he's the writer of greater than forty medical papers, together with the monograph "Reclassification of global Dyschiriini, with a revision of the Palearctic fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae)", Moscow-Sofia-St. Petersburg: Pensoft Publishers, 1996.
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Extra info for Evolution of the Beetle Hind Wing, With Special Reference to Folding (Insecta, Coleoptera)
The carina is well-developed in Adephaga and some Polyphaga, running closer to the proximal edge of the neck in the former versus the distal edge in the latter. The head is extended into a ventral process which is bent downward and articulated with BSc. 2Ax. The second axillary is subdivided into a broader body and a comparatively narrow and long arm, the latter taking off from the anterior part of the body and directly extending into BR. In the groundplan, both the body and arm are well-developed.
Completely reduced columellar cavities left the elytron smoothed out dorsally. The cancellated elytron was and still is a characteristic feature of cupedoid archostematans first. Striated and smooth elytra prove to occur in many extant and extinct Coleoptera. The elytron is thus a trilaminar structure: its dorsal and, to a lesser extent, ventral layers are composed of dorsal and ventral veinal walls, respectively, the columellae bracing these layers are of lateral walls of the neighbouring veins, and the internal cavity pierced with columellae is homologous to the veinal cavity.
The above considerations are certainly wrong, especially those concerning Polyphaga. Apparently, this is due to the radiomedial spur, rms, overlooked in the wings of many Polyphaga. Yet this short and abruptly truncated vein stems from “r–m” at its middle and fails to differ from rms of Adephaga, implying their homology. I consider “r–m” as a jointed vein originally composed of the following veins or veinal sections: (RP+MA)–(RP3+4+MA)–mp1 (Adephaga, Myxophaga, Fig. 17). Archostemata, numerous Adephaga and also probably Polyphaga show the same or perhaps a slightly derived pattern, because MP3+4 is partly fused to mp1 just distal to the oblong cell and thus shifted onto “r–m”.