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Extra info for Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes
Copulation is the rule for reproduction in this phylum, followed by internal fertilization and either internal or external development. Fertilization generally involves incorporation of the full sperm into the oocyte. Internal development often takes place within specialized structures for maternal care of the larvae. Cleavage and embryogenesis occur in patterns unique to this phylum, especially among the tapeworms and flukes; there are many different forms of larvae and patterns of metamorphosis in this group.
Adults reciprocally inseminate each other during copulation. Fertilization is internal, but embryonic development is external. Postembryonic development is direct, and there is no known example of asexual reproduction in this phylum. Phylum Loricifera The loriciferans are exclusively sexual and gonochoristic in their reproduction. Little is known about their embryonic development, but it ends with the formation of a distinctive Higgins larva, or perhaps juvenile, that is similar to the adult. Phylum Kinorhyncha All known kinorhynchs are sexual and gonochoristic.
Males spawn sperm, which females take up for internal fertilization. Cleavage is radial, and most species have planktonic larvae. Phylum Brachiopoda Lampshells are primarily gonochoristic. Fertilization is variable, but cleavage is always radial. Depending on the class, they may undergo planktonic development through a larva, or may develop directly. Asexual reproduction has not been described for the group. Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia Vol. 1: Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes Reproduction, development, and life history Phylum Phoronida Phylum Cycliophora The vast majority of phoronids are hermaphroditic, with female and male gonads functioning simultaneously.