Download Photosynthesis in Bryophytes and Early Land Plants by David T. Hanson, Steven K. Rice PDF

By David T. Hanson, Steven K. Rice

Bryophytes, that are very important components of ecosystems globally and sometimes dominate carbon and water dynamics at excessive latitudes and elevations, have been additionally one of the pioneers of terrestrial photosynthesis. accordingly, as well as their contemporary ecological price, glossy representatives of those teams include the legacy of diversifications that ended in the greening of Earth. This quantity brings jointly specialists on bryophyte photosynthesis whose examine spans the genome and cellphone via entire plant and surroundings functionality and combines that with old views at the position of algal, bryophyte and vascular plant ancestors on terrestrialization of the Earth. The eighteen well-illustrated chapters exhibit special physiological techniques to attaining carbon stability and working with environmental obstacles and stresses that current an alternate, but profitable approach for land plants.

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Even if we assume that we get the branching order correct, we do not have information about the evolutionary patterns along each branch so we do not know the physiological properties of a common ancestor between two groups. Also, fossils that could represent common ancestors or extinct lineages are highly variable, with older ones generally lacking DNA and often lacking much internal structure. As the number of characters decrease, our ability to even assess their relationships to extant plants becomes more difficult.

Thus early bryophytes may have capitalized on their tiny size and the tenacious strategy afforded by poikilohydry, where harsh conditions are essentially avoided through desiccation-induced dormancy. This foothold could have then set the stage for evolution of the embryophyte lineage into the large, homiohydric strategy that works so well in less harsh environments. 3 C. Making Inferences from Extant Organisms What made bryophytes more tenacious than other small early terrestrial photosynthetic organisms, leading to their ultimate success?

Carbon dioxide, the raw material for carbon fixation, can limit photosynthesis of algae and bryophytes that grow submerged in freshwaters when pH is low and the dominant photosynthesizers primarily use CO2 as an inorganic carbon source. Such conditions prevail, for example, in modern humic lakes where desmidialean and zygematalean algae and peatmosses are diverse and abundant (see Chap. 13). Consequently, Graham (1993) and Graham and Gray (2001) proposed that CO2-limitation was a major selective force driving streptophyte ecological transition from (1) inorganic C-limited deeper freshwater habitats to (2) shallower and more turbulent nearshore freshwaters richer in dissolved CO2 to (3) the wavesplashed and unpredictably arid shores of freshwater ponds, lakes or streams.

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